SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Solid waste is the unwanted or useless solid materials generated from human activities in residential, industrial or commercial areas.In JK Paper Mills, certain amount of solid waste is also produced in the paper making process.
The solid wastes produced in JK Paper Mills are broadly classified as:
1. Hazardous Wastes
Used oil – Grease and oil is used as a lubricant in the machinery to reduce friction and also to prevent malfunction of the machines.
After a certain time period, this used oil is removed from the machines and sent for recycling to authorised bodies which convert it into useful products.
Used Resins – Resins are reused in research labs, and being hazardous they are sent to authorised bodies for proper disposal.
2. Non-hazardous Wastes
Fly ash- This is the major solid waste produced in JK Paper Mills during electricity production from coal. The fly ash is separated from the flue gas in Electrostatic Precipitator. To know more click here …
The fly ash extracted is sent to the brick industries situated nearby.
Wood dust- Wood chipper is used in paper mill to produce chips from pulpwood so that cooking chemicals penetrate the wood quickly, completely and uniformly during manufacturing of chemical pulp or mechanical pulp.
During the production of Wood chips, a lot of wood dust is produced as a waste product. Being an organic material it is burnt as a fuel along with coal in furnaces.
Lime sludge- Lime (Calcium oxide) is used in the process of washing. Lime is added to water to form Slaked lime (Calcium Hydroxide).
CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2
(Calcium oxide) (Water) (Calcium hydroxide)
Then Calcium Hydroxide is causticized by using Sodium Carbonate
Ca(OH)2 + Na2CO3 CaCO3 + 2NaOH
(Calcium hydroxide) (Sodium carbonate) (Calcium carbonate) (Sodium hydroxide)
The Caustic Soda(Sodium hydroxide) thus obtained is sent back to Digester.
Lime sludge (Calcium carbonate) is produced as a waste product.
Lime Sludge is then burnt to produce Lime which can again be used as a raw material for washing
CaCO3 CaO + CO2
(Calcium carbonate) (Calcium oxide) (Carbon dioxide)
This calcium oxide or lime obtained here is reused as raw material in the process of washing.
Slacker- During the burning of lime sludge, some impurities are also obtained along with lime. These are referred as slacker. This Slacker is used to make the surface of roads even.
ETP Sludge – The sludge which is produced in in ETP (Effluent Treatment Plant) is referred as ETP Sludge. There are two types of ETP sludge:
1. ETP Primary Sludge: This is extracted from the waste white water which is used for paper making and this sludge is sent to other Paper Mills that manufacture low grade paper. 2. Brown Sludge: This is used for making cardboards, egg trays, sweet packets, disposable Plates.
Plantation on Fly Ash
Effluent Treatment Plant
ETP(EffluentTreatmentPlant) is a process design fortreating the industrial waste water for its reuse or safe disposal to the environment.
•Influent: Untreated industrial waste water.
•Effluent: Treated industrial waste water.
•Sludge: Solid part separated from waste water by ETP.