AIR WASTE MANAGEMENT
As we know, every industry has the basic requirement of energy to run its machinery; JK Paper Mills is not an exception. JK Paper Mills uses thermal power plants to generate the required electricity, as our state is a storehouse of valuable coal.
Coal extracted from mines is fed to the boilers in thermal power plants generating a large amount of combustion heat. The heat energy obtained from combustion of solid coal is used to convert water into steam; this steam is at high pressure and temperature. This steam is used to rotate the turbine blade, turbine shaft is connected to the generator. The generator converts the kinetic energy of the turbine blades into electric energy.
Combustion of coal produces smoke (flue gas) which consists of:-
PM – Particulate Matter
SO2 –Sulphur dioxide
NOx – Oxides of Nitrogen
CO2 – Carbon dioxide
CO – Carbon monoxide
Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas which is formed during the incomplete combustion of coal in absence of sufficient oxygen. Carbon dioxide is formed by the complete combustion of coal and is relatively less harmful. In order to minimize the emission of Carbon monoxide sufficient oxygen is pumped into the boilers.
Tiny particles driven out of coal-fired boilers together with the flue gases are termed as fly ash.
C + O2 CO2 + Heat + PM
(Carbon) (Oxygen) (Carbon dioxide) (Energy) (Fly ash)
The emission of fly ash into atmosphere is controlled by an electrostatic precipitator. An electrostatic precipitator is a type of filter (dry scrubber) that uses static electricity to remove particulate matter from gaseous emissions.
The operation of electrostatic precipitators is fairly simple:
The dirty flue gas escaping through the smokestack is passed through electrodes. One of the electrodes is charged with a high negative voltage, and this plate causes particulates inside the smoke to obtain a negative charge as they pass by this electrode. The second electrode carries a similarly high positive voltage. Based solely on the fact that opposite charges attract, the negatively charged particles are pulled towards the positive electrode and stick to it. Occasionally these plates must be hammered to remove the accumulated particles. The particles and ash collected from coal burning power plants in this manner is the fly ash.